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Management of Absence

The following interpretations apply throughout this document :

  • for 'him' read 'him/her'
  • for 'his' read 'his/her'
  • for 'Headteacher' read 'Headteacher or his/her representative'
  • for 'Director of Education' read 'Director of Education or his/her representative' or in the case of a Voluntary Aided school a person nominated by the appropriate diocesan authority.


The Governing Body is committed to being a good employer, and to doing all it can to ensure the health, safety and welfare of all the staff at the school.  It considers that this is good for the pupils, individual staff, and good for the community.  This policy contributes to the governors’ pursuit of a high quality service, and the development and maintenance of high standards.


Whilst all staff have a particular role to play within the Policy/Procedure, the overall responsibility for the day to day management of sickness absence lies with the Headteacher.


The principles on which this policy is based are:

  • The promotion of a positive, supportive and preventative rather than punitive approach

  • Fairness to all

  • Harmonious relations

  • Good working standards and practices

  • Avoidance of disruption to pupils education as far as is reasonably practicable

  • Clear and understood health and safety procedures

  • A recognition that relevant training is necessary

  • Prompt consistent appropriate action by Headteachers/Managers in accordance with this policy and procedure. However, employees should be dealt with according to the merits of each case.

  • An understanding that matters relating to an employee’s attendance do not imply distrust of employees or concerns regarding their conduct.

  • The Management of sickness absence being dealt with in a non discriminatory way, in accordance with the Authority’s equal opportunities policy and associated legislation, in particular the Disability Discrimination and Race Relations Amendment Acts.


Governors recognise that employees need to be treated in a considerate manner in order to fully recover from sickness and return to work fully fit.  For this reason the response of management to staff suffering sickness will be fully supportive.  This support will contribute towards fulfilling the duty of care incumbent on the employer and enable the employee to return to making a full contribution to the education service.


As far as possible the causes of sickness should be ascertained at the earliest opportunity with a view to devising a strategy for support.  There can be many causes for sickness. In cases where work issues are, or may be identified as contributing to sickness, consideration will be given to taking action to identify remedies in order to prevent a recurrence. Where appropriate, consideration may be given to job share, part time or flexible working.  Where personal and/or domestic issues are, or may be identified as contributing to sickness, appropriate support will be offered, though this is likely to be limited by the nature of the personal and/or domestic problem.  Whatever the source of a problem leading to sickness, employees are encouraged to seek advice and support well before serious illness becomes an issue and employment might be put in jeopardy.


All sickness will be deemed genuine unless there is evidence to the contrary, in which case the matter will be dealt with in accordance with the School/LEA’s Disciplinary Policy.


Employees should:

  • Attend work unless unfit to do so.

  • If they believe specific issues relating to their job are making them ill or contributing to their illness, they should raise their concern with their Headteacher/Line Manager at the earliest instance.

  • Report sickness absences promptly, in accordance with the procedures laid down in this policy.

  • Ensure that the appropriate certifications are completed, in accordance with the procedure.

  • Maintain contact with their Headteacher/Line Manager during periods of sickness absence as required.

  • Be prepared to discuss openly with the Headteacher/Line Manager their sickness absence with a view to improvement.

  • Where appropriate, co-operate fully with the LEAs/Schools Medical Advisers.

  • Ensure that medical advice and treatment, where appropriate are received as quickly as possible in order to facilitate a return to work.


Employees are reminded of special leave of absence, maternity, paternity and parental leave provisions which are available to accommodate a range of circumstances which may necessitate absence from work for reasons other than sickness.  This policy will be revised as required in the light of legislative changes, and/or operational/implementation difficulties.


Occupational Health

The Council has an Occupational Health Unit which currently consists of an Occupational Nurse and administrative support together with access to an Occupational Health Adviser and Medical Adviser. This unit administers health checks, health surveillances and medical appointments and examinations.


The School/LEA may access this unit for advice and support and likewise employees may wish to access the unit for advice and support regarding their health.


In addition, the Council maintains a list of approved Counsellors. These Counsellors are used for the support of employees. 


Further information on the above can be obtained from your Headteacher/Line Manager or the Education Personnel section. 




1 - Notification Requirements

In order for service delivery to be maintained, it is essential for the Headteacher/Line Manager to know when an employee is unable to attend work due to illness.  Failure to inform the Headteacher/Line Manager of absence may lead to the absence from work being considered as unauthorised and appropriate action being taken. The following procedure applies to all school employees.


1.1 The employee must (unless exceptional circumstances prevail) telephone their Headteacher/Line Manager no later than 8.00am on the first day of absence, before they are due to begin work.  For employees working alternative patterns of work a suitable time limit should be agreed with the line manager.  If the Headteacher/Line Manager is unavailable, the employee should speak to the person nominated by the Headteacher/Line Manager to deal with sickness absence.


1.2 The employee must provide the Headteacher/Line Manager with the nature of their illness or injury, their anticipated length of absence and if possible any work/class commitments that may need rearranging.  Where the employee is unable to specify the anticipated length of illness, regular contact should be maintained.


1.3 If the employee believes that their absence may have been caused by something that happened at work, they should inform the Headteacher/Line Manager of this and arrange for an appropriate Accident Report Form – HS1 or 3 to be completed.  The Departmental Safety Officer may be contacted for advice before completing the form.


1.4 Exceptionally, if the employee is unable to telephone in person, they should if possible, arrange for someone else to telephone on their behalf, in accordance with 1.1 and 1.2 above.  The employee must make direct contact with the Headteacher/Line Manager as soon as possible thereafter.


1.5 If there has been no contact since day 1 of absence, employees should contact their Headteacher/Line Manager on the 4th day of continual absence to keep them up to date on their illness.


1.6 Where an employee is in work and complains to their Headteacher/Line Manger of feeling unwell, if they have been in work for the majority of the morning, and then go home the sickness should be recorded as a half day absence.


2 - Certification

Every absence has to be certified to ensure prompt and correct payment of contractual and statutory sick pay and to ensure that accurate records are maintained.  Up to the first 7 days (including weekends) of absence this certification will be via a Self Certification Form which must be completed on your first day of return.  Failure to comply with the certification procedures may result in loss of sick pay. 


2.1 If the employee continues to be absent for more than 7 consecutive days (regardless of whether or not these are working days), they must consult a doctor and obtain a medical certificate, which must be forwarded immediately to the Headteacher/Line Manager.  Failure to do so may result in the withdrawal of sick pay.


2.2 Where there is continuing sickness absence the employee must submit to the Headteacher/Line Manager concurrent medical certificates to cover the whole period of absence.

2.3 Appropriate and timely certificates must be received from the employee; it is the employee’s responsibility to obtain and submit medical certificates from their GP.


2.4 The Headteacher/Line Manager must ensure that absences are recorded on the Monthly Absence Return form and certificates are sent to the appropriate Payroll/Salary Section at County Hall. 


2.5 Exceptionally, if the Headteacher/Line Manager is concerned at the frequency of an employee’s absence, or their account of their reasons for absence, the employee may be requested to submit doctor’s medical certificates, rather than self-certificates, from their first day of absence.  In such cases the School will meet the cost of any fee charged.​​​​​​​


2.6 It is a contractual requirement that payment of sick pay is dependent on the employee complying with the school’s requirements to submit to a medical examination by the Council doctor, OH Advisor and OH Practitioner, subject to the provisions of the Access to Medical Reports Act 1988.​​​​​​​


2.7 If contemplating an early return prior to expiry date of the current sickness certificate, the employee must obtain a medical certificate confirming fitness to return to work and should give the school as much notice as possible of return.


3 - Maintaining Contact

When an employee is absent from work due to sickness it is important that contact is maintained between the Headteacher/Line Manager and employee.  Such contact should assist the Headteacher in reallocating work, maintaining service provision and minimising disruption to pupils’ education.  It should also assist in preventing the employee from feeling isolated, vulnerable or out of touch and assist the employer in discharging its duty of care.​​​​​​​


3.1 The employee and Headteacher/Line Manager must maintain regular telephone contact throughout periods of sickness absence.​​​​​​​


3.2 Where appropriate and where an employee is absent from work for more than 3 weeks, the Headteacher/Line Manager should arrange with the employee to visit them at home or a mutually agreed location.  Thereafter, such visits should be arranged at appropriate intervals.


4 - Statutory Requirements

This document applies to all categories of school based staff, but there is a specific statutory requirement with regard to teaching staff.


Under the Teachers’ Regulations, a teacher must have the necessary health and physical capacity to undertake ‘relevant employment’.  Certain non-teaching posts, which bring the employee into regular contact with children or young people may also be covered by this.  Advice should be sought from the Personnel Section if there is any concern regarding this.


5 - Return to work after absences​​​​​​​


5.1 Upon return to work following sickness absence the Headteacher/line manager should arrange to meet privately with the employee at a mutually agreed time, ideally during the first day back or at least within 3 days of the return to work.​​​​​​​


5.2 The purpose of the meeting will be to welcome the employee back to work, ensure that there is an accurate record of the absence and appropriate certification and update the employee on work issues.  The Headteacher/line manager should give assurances of their concern for the employee’s welfare, balanced with the manager’s concerns about service delivery and the impact on other team members.  The Headteacher/line manager should also provide the employee with information on the availability of support and consider any measures that the employee feels may be required or Occupational Health recommendations that may assist the return.​​​​​​​


5.3 A Return to Work Discussion Form should be completed and placed on the employee’s file.  This is attached as Appendix 1


It is recognised that the types and duration of sickness absences vary considerablyHowever, they would normally fall into the category of short term/intermittent absences or long term absence. The following sections 6 + 7 outline the different approaches/processes for dealing with Intermittent/Short Term type Absences and Long Term Sickness Absences. 


6 - Intermittent Sickness Absences

It must be emphasised that the Headteachers approach must be supportive, but with the intention of achieving an improvement. 


6.1- Informal Stage

Headteachers may, subject to their detailed knowledge of the case, wish to consider the need for personal interview with the employee either by themselves or an appropriate colleague.  The purpose of this informal meeting is to discuss the absences, to outline expectations and to effect an improvement.


It is only following the above informal stage that consideration will be given to embarking on the formal procedure outlined below.


6.2 - Formal Interview Procedure

Where an individuals’ absence level meets one or more of the following trigger points and is a cause for concern, the Headteacher/Line Manager will interview the employee.


The School/LEA Trigger Points will be as follows:

  • An employee accumulates 10 working days absence in the previous 12 months. This number of days should be pro rata for part time employees. 
  • An employee’s absence shows a repetitive pattern e.g. absence at the same time every week or every term or every year; or immediately, preceding or following a period of holiday.
  • Four periods of sickness absences occur within one year.
  • An employees’ overall sickness record seems unreasonable, including periods of longer term absences that may be related or unrelated but which are of an intermittent nature.


6.2.1 - Stage 1: Initial Interview

The employee will be informed by letter of the date, time and location of the interview, the nature of the matter to be discussed, together with details of the individuals’ sickness record.  The individual will have the right to be accompanied by a Trade Union representative or colleague.  Officers of the Education Department will attend if requested. The date of the interview must be at least 7 days after the date of the letter. Where possible this date should be negotiated and agreed with all parties.


At the interview, some or all of the following will be discussed:

  • absence record – explore the reasons of absence and what is the prognosis for the future.
  • consider areas of support such as reasonable adjustment, flexible working, further training etc.
  • consider counselling or referral to Occupational Health Service, or other action such as seeking further medical opinion either by the employer or the employee.
  • set targets for improvement and review date.  The review period should be sufficient for the employee to show a sustained improvement in attendance. This period would normally be up to 12 months.
  • caution employee that current level of sickness absence is giving concern and advise that if the absence levels do not improve, their employment could be at risk.
  • the Headteacher/Line Manager will write to the employee within 7 working days of the meeting, confirming the points discussed and the outcome including targets set and review date.


6.2.2 - Stage 2: Final Interview

If there is an insufficient improvement to the employee’s sickness absence record, a final interview will be convened by the Headteacher/Line Manger in accordance with Stage 1 above. 


The purpose of this meeting will be to:

  • review sickness absence to date
  • reaffirm the issues discussed at previous meetings
  • identify support if appropriate
  • set further targets for improvement with review date
  • caution employee that current level of sickness continues to give concern and is unacceptable
  • discuss alternative working practices e.g. reduction of hours
  • advise that if there is insufficient improvement, the matter will be referred to the Dismissal Committee of the Governing Body in order for them to consider the employees continued employment
  • Headteacher/Line Manager will write to the employee within 7 working days of the meeting, confirming the points discussed and the outcome.


6.3 - Stage 3: Governing Body Hearing

If on review, an employee’s absence level continues to be unacceptable, the Headteacher should refer the matter to the Governing Body Dismissal Committee.

Prior to the hearing, the Headteacher should obtain as much medical evidence as possible.

Only the Governing Body may make a determination to terminate the employment of a member of staff.


The Governing Body must have constituted a Staff Dismissal Committee comprising a minimum of three members.  This Committee must have delegated plenary powers in order to execute this duty.


6.3.1 - Procedure for Hearing

The employee must be informed by letter, of the date, time and location of the hearing and of his/her right to be accompanied by a trade union representative or working colleague.  The date of the hearing must be at least 7 days after the date of the letter. Where possible this date should be negotiated and agreed with all parties.


The Headteacher should prepare a statement giving:


  1. full details of the absence record
  2. any other relevant documentary evidence.


​​​​​​​This report is to be sent under confidential cover in advance of the meeting to the member of staff concerned not less than 7 days before the meeting.  The report will be given to members of the Committee at the start of the hearing.  If the employee wishes to introduce documentary evidence, he may also do so at this stage, but it is necessary that the Headteacher be provided with a copy of that documentary evidence at least 24 hours before the start of the hearing.


The Director of Education is entitled to attend and advise at any such meetings and must be extended an invitation to attend with the usual 7 days notice given to members of the Committee.


The proceedings of the hearing shall be as follows:

  1. The Headteacher’s statement is to be given to the Committee, together with any documentary evidence which the employee might wish to introduce.
  2. The Headteacher will outline the medical record, any further relevant information and introduce any witnesses necessary.
  3. The employee and/or his representative will be invited to offer his explanation, call witnesses if appropriate, or speak in mitigation.
  4. The various parties (i.e. the employee or his representative, the Committee, the Headteacher or their Advisers) will be allowed to ask questions at any convenient point in the proceedings, which should be kept as informal as possible.
  5. Both the employee or his representative and the Headteacher will be allowed to make a concluding statement.
  6. All those present, except for the Committee and their Adviser(s), shall be instructed to withdraw whilst the Committee considers the matter. The Director of Education remains present to give advice only. He should then withdraw whilst the Governing Body make their decision.
  7. In assessing the future employment of the employee, Governors will take into account the following​​​​​​​
  • ​​​​​​​the absence record and any medical evidence available
  • the nature of the illness(es)
  • the likelihood of future absence through ill health
  • the effect on the education of the pupils
  • the effect on other employees
  • the effect on the efficient management of the school including financial implications
  • the possibility of alternative employment being found, and accepted
  • any other previous support/action taken
  • any representations made by the employee and/or their representative.


If they consider there are sufficient grounds, they may make the determination to dismiss on the basis of a failure to attend work on grounds of ill health. Where they are unable to make a decision, they may defer the matter.  After the Committee has completed it’s deliberations, the parties will be recalled and advised of the conclusions reached.  If the determination to dismiss is made, the employee will be notified of his rights of appeal and will be sent written confirmation of the decision, the reasons, and of his rights of appeal.


6.4 - Appeals

6.4.1 The employee will have a right of appeal against the determination of the Staff Dismissal Committee to dismiss.  The Appeal must be in writing to the Headteacher within 7 days of receipt of the letter confirming the outcome.


6.4.2 The Governing Body should constitute an Appeals Committee comprising of equal or more members than the Dismissal Committee.  No Governors on the Dismissal Committee can be on the Appeals Committee.  The Appeal Hearing should be convened as soon as possible.


6.4.3 The Director of Education or his representative shall have the right to be present throughout the meeting to advise the Governing Body and is entitled to the same notice of the meeting as members of the Governing Body.  At least 7 days’ notice of the time and date of the meeting shall be given to the member of staff, Governors and Director of Education. Where possible this date should be negotiated and agreed with all parties.


6.4.4 The Appeals Body should operate as follows:

  1. Where an appeal has been lodged, the various parties and their representative should be called in simultaneously before the Appeals Committee.
  2. The Headteacher will then present the case, including a brief statement of the employees’ employment details, calling any witnesses.
  3. The Governing Body and the Appellant or his representative will then be entitled to question the Headteacher and any witnesses on the case so presented.
  4. The Appellant or his representative will then present his case calling any witnesses.
  5. The Governing Body and the Headteacher will then be entitled to question the Appellant and his witnesses.
  6. Both parties can then make any closing remarks, with the Headteacher going first.  No new evidence is to be produced at this stage.
  7. All the parties other than the Governing Body and the Director of Education will withdraw while the Governing Body consider the matter. The Director of Education remains present to give advice only. He should then withdraw whilst the Governing Body make their decision.
  8. The Governing Body may, if they wish, recall the parties to clarify any points, but in any such event, must recall the Director of Education, the Headteacher and the Appellant, notwithstanding that only one party is to be questioned.
  9. After a decision has been reached, the parties should be recalled and the Governing Body’s decision announced.  This will then be confirmed in writing at the earliest opportunity to the employee and the Director of Education.
  10. If the decision is to confirm the termination of employment, the Director of Education will formally terminate the employee’s contract.  Statutory notice will be given normally as Payment in Lieu of Notice.


​​​​​​​7 - Dealing with Long Term Absence

​​​​​​​7.1 Absences over 28 days duration are considered long term.​​​​​​​


7.2 The Headteacher/Line Manager should arrange to meet with the employee on a regular basis, usually at their home, or other mutually agreed location, in order to keep up-to-date with progress, identify areas for support and determine whether any other actions should be taken.


​​​​​​​7.3 Where it is evident that an absence is to continue for more than 2 months, the Headteacher/Line Manger will refer the case to the Human Resources Section (Education) who in turn will refer the matter to the Councils’ Occupational Health Service.  This is a guide only and depending on the case referral may be earlier or later than the 2 month period.  The purpose of gaining Occupational Health advice will be to provide an indication of the likely duration of the employees absence and whether any steps can be taken to help the employee return to work.


​​​​​​​7.4 Where it is considered appropriate the LEA/School will request the employee’s consent to access appropriate sections of their medical records and/or to seek advice from the employee’s Doctor/Consultant, so as to ensure that all relevant medical information is available. (see section 11.2 below).


​​​​​​​​​​​​​​7.5 Possible courses are:

  • Continue to review the case in the light of the available medical information.
  • Refer the employee to the Authority’s Occupational Health Practitioner (Pension Fund Medical Adviser) and deal with the case in the light of the recommendations received.
  • In all events any actions being contemplated will be discussed with the employee and their representative, if applicable, before any formal decisions are made.
  • There will be a right of appeal against the recommendation of the Occupational Health Adviser to an independent  medical  practitioner. Any fee payable will be met by the school.
  • If appropriate, consideration should be given to seeking alternative employment.
  • For Teachers considering applying for Ill Health Retirement benefits due to their health, advice on the procedure that needs to be followed should be provided by the school/LEA. Teachers are encouraged to seek advice at the earliest possible stage when considering this course of action. Whilst support can be given, the decision about making such an application lies with the teacher.  All such applications must be processed via the Council’s Occupational Health Unit.


7.6 Referral to Governing Body Staff Dismissal Committee

Cases should be referred to the above Committee when medical advice is:

  • The employee is permanently unfit to fulfil the duties of their post. In the case of teaching staff who are in the process of making an application to Teachers Pensions for Ill Health Retirement benefits, this would generally be where such an application has been unsuccessful.
  • There is no prospect of a return to work within a reasonable time scale.
  • That redeployment should be considered. This has been explored but proved unsuccessful.
  • That reasonable adjustments should be considered. These cannot be accommodated or have been accommodated and have proved unsuccessful.


7.7 The procedure of the hearing will be as covered by Paragraph 6.3 above.


7.8 Right of Appeal Against Dismissal​​​​​​​

7.8.1 Where a determination by the Staff Dismissal Committee is made to terminate the employees employment on the grounds of ill health capability, the employee has the right of appeal.


​​​​​​​7.8.2 The procedure of the Appeal will be as covered in Paragraph 6.4 above.


8 - Cost of any Associated Tribunal Claims

Governing Bodies and Heads of Establishment are reminded that any awards as a result of Employment Tribunal Cases will be met by the LEA unless it has good reason.


9 - Headteacher Sickness Levels

This policy and procedure applies to Headteachers as employees of the school/LEA.


9.1 - Notification Requirements

The Headteacher must notify the Deputy Headteacher/Chair of Governors of sickness absence in accordance with the requirements of paragraph 1 above.​​​​​​​


9.2 - Certification

Appropriate certification must be submitted and recorded as in Paragraph 2 above. The Deputy/Acting Head should ensure appropriate forms are submitted to the Salary sections.​​​​​​​


9.3 - Maintaining Contact

The Deputy/Acting Head  or Chair of Governors should maintain regular Contact with the Headteacher as in Paragraph 3 above. On occasions, it may be appropriate for an LEA Officer to maintain contact.


​​​​​​​9.4 - Return to work after absences

A return to work meeting should be held with the Chair of Governors as soon as possible and the Return to work discussion form completed. This should be placed on the Headteacher’s file.​​​​​​​


9.5 - Intermittent Sickness Absence

The same procedure will apply as in Paragraph 6 above where a Headteacher’s sickness absence level is a cause for concern. This concern may be identified by the Chair of Governors or LEA Officers. The Chair of Governors will need to seek advice from Senior Officers of the LEA and agree who should conduct any informal meeting or Interview under the Formal Procedure. Normally this would be the Chair of Governors and an LEA Officer. The procedure, discussions and outcome of any interviews should be in line with paragraph 6 above.


Any Governing Body Hearing or Appeal will be conducted as per paragraph’s 6.3 and 6.4 above with the role of the Headteacher being undertaken by the Chair of Governors and/or LEA Officer.​​​​​​​


9.6 - Long Term Absence

Headteacher  long term sickness absence should be dealt with in accordance with paragraph 7 above. Again it would be agreed between the Chair of Governors and LEA Officers who should maintain contact with the Headteacher and refer his case to the Occupational Health Service.


Each case will be dealt with as per paragraph 7 and in line with the medical advice received.


10 - Additional Considerations


10.1 - Health which does not lead to absence from work

There may be occasions where an employee is suffering from ill health, but this does not lead to the employee being absent from work.  If the employee believes that their ill health is having an impact on their ability to undertake their job, they should raise this with their line manager.  The line manager should discuss the matter confidentially with the employee, review the workplace risk assessment and discuss whether any additional support can be provided to the employee to support them at work.  Depending on the circumstances, it may be helpful to seek advice and guidance from the Authority’s Occupational Health unit.​​​​​​​


10.2 - Access to Medical Reports Act

The employee must be made aware of their rights under the Data Protection Act 1998 and Access to Medical Reports Act 1988, in relation to the request to seek a report from the employee’s GP, and be provided with explanatory notes to this effect.


The Headteacher and employee must be clear about the point on which they seek advice. Only appropriate sections of medical history will be sought or advice on specific issues requested. With the employee’s consent, the GP/Consultant will send the medical report (seen and agreed by the individual if requested) under confidential cover to the Occupational Health Adviser of the Authority. Based on this, the Adviser will provide relevant medical information to the employer.


Where the employee does not give their consent to the School/LEA seeking a report from their GP and/or the employee refuses to meet with the School/Human Resources Representative to discuss their case, the implications of this should be discussed with the employee and confirmed in writing. Should the employee not co-operate with the employer in obtaining additional medical information, a decision will have to be made on the basis of information available at that point in time.


​​​​​​​10.3 Rehabilitation of Employees

Following long term sickness where a Headteacher, in consultation with the Authority’s Occupational Health Service and HR & OD representative, considers that it is appropriate for an employee to return on reduced hours for therapeutic reasons, this will be arranged.  These reduced hours must be reasonable and fit in with the needs of the school. There should be a planned programme for increase to the employee’s normal contractual hours.  The change in contractual hours and planned programme will be confirmed in writing. The maximum period for such an arrangement is normally one month.  All employees will receive their normal contractual pay during the rehabilitation period.


In exceptional circumstances and where supported by further medical evidence, the rehabilitation period may be extended for up to another month. This will be absolute maximum period of rehabilitation within this scheme.


This policy will be reviewed when necessary.

Last updated January 2024


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